Extreme ideologies

Right-wing extremism is mainly based on the ideology of Nazism and fascism, which are characterized by a rejection of equality. It is motivated by ideologies that aim to suppress basic human rights and freedoms, which they oppose, support, or incite hatred, violence, or unjustifiably different treatment towards a group of people or an individual due to their race, nationality, ethnicity, origin, opinions, physical or mental differences, or religious beliefs. Its goal is to eliminate liberal democracy.


Right-wing extremism stems from racially or ethnically conditioned social inequality. It requires ethnic homogeneity of the nation and rejects the principle of equality enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, advocating for the community’s preference over the individual and rejecting the pluralism of values of liberal democracy. They seek to define democracy as regressive and are hostile towards other nations. They support revisionism, where they give Nazi Germany as an example and deny the Holocaust. They also belittle those who deviate from the norms set by the extremists.


The goal of right-wing extremists is to create a political system based on the inequality of people based on their origin, performance, national, ethnic, or racial affiliation. According to such extremists, power should be concentrated in one center or in the hands of a single person, whom they define as their leader.


Left-wing extremism is ideologically based on communism and anarchism. It is characterized by social and class prejudices and rejects external authority, promoting the ideas of the so-called”free” individual. The goal of left-wing extremists is to create a socio-communist regime or introduce anarchy. A typical characteristic of left-wing extremism is the extension of the principle of equality to all areas of life and for all people, thus establishing absolute equality in society.


If the goals of left-wing extremists are realized, it can directly endanger pluralistic democracy and civil liberties.


From an ideological perspective, Marxist-Leninism, communism, and anarchism form the extremist far-left groups.


Eco-extremism is also categorized as a left-wing group. Radical ecological or environmental extremism is characterized by an inclination towards various natural cults that correspond with the ecologists’ message of returning to nature and all life forms. By nature, it is opposed to the sovereignty and values of a democratic constitutional state, promoting intolerant advocacy of subjectively defined environmental interests. Its characteristic feature is its opposition to technology, science, business, and any organizations.


Religious extremism is ideologically based on radical currents of various religious groups. Primarily, it involves world religions such as Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, but also includes sect issues. The goal of religious extremists is to apply their own religious ideology worldwide and eliminate those who would resist this ideology or refuse to respect its norms. According to fundamentalists, religion cannot be separated from law and politics. Therefore, such extremists seek to change society in all its areas based on a specific religious doctrine, deviating significantly from generally accepted and currently adoptednorms.


Religious extremism carries traits of violence, which is directly motivated by religion. Specifically, religious extremists believe that these acts are merely fulfilling God’s will and accelerating the salvation of all humankind. Thus, it is an intolerant way of asserting the sovereignty of a religious society or organization over the principles and values of a democratic state.


Religious extremism uses religion to promote interests that lead to the establishment or maintenance of a theocratic regime, which is characterized by a significant intolerance towards people of different faiths, limiting the rights and suppressing the human dignity of members of their own religious group.


As previously noted, sects are included in religious extremism. Thus, religious extremism can also manifest itself through strict or violent enforcement or imposition of religious doctrines and questionable interpretations, fanatical adherence to the teachings of their founder or leader. Typical expressions of religious extremism include the endangerment of moral development, particularly of children and youth, which, in the case of indoctrinated individuals and members of religious extremist groups, can lead to mass suicides or the killing of innocent people. It can also lead to harm to the health or property of other individuals.